Tiny Little People

American comic books and underground comics

American comic books

 Rulah, Jungle Goddes No. 24 (March 1949): An example of a non-superhero jungle-girl character. Cover artist(s) unknown.

Adventures into Darkness: Horror stories

Since the introduction of the comic book format in 1933 with the publication of Famous Funnies, the United States has produced the most titles, along with British comics and Japanese manga, in terms of quantity of titles.

Cultural historians divide the career of the comic book in the U.S. into several ages or historical eras.

Comic book historians continue to debate the exact boundaries of these eras, but they have come to an agreement, the terms for which originated in the fan press. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of  The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover—making it the first known American prototype comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster’s Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry, and is the start of the Golden Age of comics. Historians have proposed several names for the Age before Superman, most commonly dubbing it the Platinum Age.

While the Platinum Age saw the first use of the term “comic book” (The Yellow Kid in McFadden’s Flats (1897)), the first known full-color comic (The Blackberries (1901)), and the first monthly comic book (Comics Monthly(1922)), it was not until the Golden Age that the archetype of the superhero would originate.

The Silver Age of comic books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the dormant superhero form—the debut of Robert Kanigher and Carmine Infantino’s Flash in Showcase No. 4 (September/October 1956).The Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby’sFantastic Fourand Stan Lee and Steve Ditko’s Spider-Man.

The precise beginnings of the Bronze and Copper Ages remain less well-defined. Suggested starting points for the Bronze Age of comics include Roy Thomas and Barry Windsor-Smith’s Conan No. 1 (October 1970), Denny O’Neil and Neal Adams’ Green Lantern/Green Arrow  No. 76 (April 1970), or Stan Lee and Gil Kane’s The Amazing Spider-Man No. 96 (May 1971; the non-Comics Code issue). The start of the Copper Age (apprx. 1984–2000) has even more potential starting points, but is generally agreed to be the publication of Frank Miller’s Batman; The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore’s Watchmen by DC Comics in 1986, as well as the publication of DC’s Crisis on Infinite Earths,  written by Mary Wolfman with pencils by George Perez.

A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with the psychiatrist Fredric Wertham’s criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U.S. comic book industry set up the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the “Comics Code” in the same year.

Underground comic books

In the late 1960s and early 1970s a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited, often irreverent style; their frank depictions of nudity, sex, profanity, and politics had no parallel outside their precursors, the pornographic and even more obscure “Tijuan Bible’s”. Underground comics were almost never sold at news stands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head-shops and record stores, as well as by mail order.

Frank Stack’s The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon,has been credited as the first underground comic.

woman comic writer whom I liked


Lora Innes is the one of my best woman comic writer

Lora Innes graduated Suma Cum Laude in 2002 from the Columbus College of Art and Design with a Bachelors in Fine Art. She worked for several years at the Artifact Group, doing illustration for clients such as Fisher Price, Mattel, McGraw Hill, Nickelodeon, Scholastic and Simon & Schuster. Now she writes and draws The Dreamer and wouldn’t trade it for the world.



Women in comics

Selina Kyle’s lacy red bra and its ample, curvy contents fill the first panel of “Catwoman” No. 1, published last year when Dc Comics relaunched 52 of its most popular titles. By the last page, she’s straddling Batman and spilling out of her leather suit once more.

Catwoman wasn’t DC’s only female superhero to make her “New 52” debut in lingerie. In “Red Hood and the Outlaws” No. 1, extraterrestrial princess Starfire strikes a Playboy-like pose, bursting out of her purple bikini as she propositions Red Hood. And Voodoo, a shape-shifting half-alien hybrid, spends half of her first issue stripping.

Cover for “Catwoman” No.1 (DC Comics)

Comics blogs buzzed with debate, and critics cried sexism, pointing to the company’s predominantly male creative staff. DC’s rival Marvel Comics often faces similar criticism — the superhero comics genre historically has been a boys’ club.

But a broader look at the world of comics and the women who work there reveals the industry is far more gender-balanced than the superhero fare suggests. Though women still make up a minority of creative talent at Marvel and DC, their influence is growing. And in comics at large, women are on even footing and gaining ground.

“Outside the world of Marvel and DC, women are just doing it, and it’s awesome,” said Heidi MacDonald, a comics journalist and former editor for Disney  and DC Comics. “They’re succeeding or failing on the content of their work.”

Women dominate the pages of manga (comics created in Japan), their graphic novels fill the catalogs of small independent publishers, and their Web comics draw millions of eyeballs.

Sarah Oleksyk, whose first graphic novel, “Ivy,” earned her two prestigious Eisner Award nominations, self-published her book in installments before small publisher Oni Press picked it up. Eisner winner Vera Brosgol’s graphic novel “Anya’s Ghost” was published by First Second. Both novels are coming-of-age stories — Ivy is a teenager who runs away from home and Anya a Russian immigrant who struggles to fit in at her high school.

“Teenage boys aren’t the only people with money, and unfortunately I think the mainstream comics juggernaut has just been focusing on this little section of readership for a long time,” Oleksyk said. “There’s this gigantic range of stories being told in indie comics — biographies, nonfiction, every sort of thing. So if you don’t want to read something about crime-fighting superheroes, you have 10,000 other subjects to choose, and most of those are independently published.”

Faith Erin Hicks amassed a devoted following online for her comic “The Adventures of Superhero Girl.” (Faith Erin Hicks)

Young female comics creators are coming up through the Internet, unhindered by the tastemakers and gatekeepers that guarded comics 30 years ago.Faith Erin Hicks, turned off by mainstream superhero comics, created a strip called “The Adventures of Superhero Girl” about an otherwise ordinary young woman who uses her super-strength to fight crime. The cartoon was printed in the free Halifax, Canada, newspaper the coast, but it was online that Hicks amassed her devoted following.

Lora Innes’ “The Dreamer” draws readers who are new to comics. (IDW)

Lora Innes began “The Dreamer” — about a girl whose dreams take her back to the American Revolution — as a Web comic, taking to MySpace to invite teenyboppers and Revolutionary War enthusiast groups to read the comic online. Now, “The Dreamer” is published by IDW, and Innes continues to attract readers who otherwise might not have set foot in a comics shop.

Industry veterans welcome the influx of female talent and are happy to bid farewell to the days of being grossly outnumbered by men at comic conventions.

“I look at my classes, and it’s not uncommon that there are a few more women than men,” said Jessoca Abel, author of the graphic novel “La Perdida.” Abel has taught undergraduate cartooning courses at the School of Visual Arts in New York. “It’s also not uncommon that they’re the best students in class.”

MacDonald, the Eisner-nominated comics journalist and editor of comics blog The Beat, points to the stark contrast between today’s comics industry and that of the 1980s and ’90s, when she helped start Friends of Lulu, a nonprofit promoting female readership and participation in comics. The group ceased operating last year.

“I think part of the reason why it faded away is that people were getting their own gigs,” MacDonald said. “The reason for the organization kind of dried up. There was a lot more opportunity, and there wasn’t so much need for it.”

Time Magazine named Kate Beaton’s “Hark! A Vagrant” one of the top 10 fiction books of 2011. (Drawn and Quarterly)

MacDonald points to the success of cartoonists such as MacArthur grant recipient Alison Bechdel, whose graphic memoir “Fun Home” was named the best book of 2006 by Time magazine, and “Hark! A Vargant” author Kate Beaton, who started by publishing her cartoons online and now draws some of the longest book-signing lines at comic conventions.

MacDonald, Abel, Oleksyk and others are quick to point out that the frequently spotlighted superhero genre is just a tide pool in an ocean of work — a tide pool that has somehow managed to delay the sea change undergone by the rest of the industry.

“They consistently make editorial decisions that seem designed to alienate women,” Abel said. “So it’s self-reinforcing. If you’re constantly straight-arming women, women aren’t going to read them. If they don’t read them, they don’t grow up imagining them. If they don’t grow up imagining them, they’re not going to make them.”

Though she disagrees with the practice, MacDonald says she understands why the so-called Big Two cater so heavily to teenage boys and men.

“They’re just terrified of getting the girl cooties on there and losing their audience,” she said. “Marvel and DC, they have a different goal, a different corporate mandate. Certainly for Marvel, they are absolutely part of Disney’s great master plan to have more boy readers…. For DC, as part of the corporate structure, that is more where they fit in.”

But even in the superhero world, new artists and more women are being brought in, partly in response to fan concerns.

“It’s definitely been a push,” said Bobbie Chase, editorial director for DC. “We’re pursuing people all the time who could be new voices for comic books, but it’s still going to be a predominantly male industry. I don’t think that has to change, but we can certainly make a much better balance.”

The Birds of Prey, Wonder Woman and Starfire (who leads the way on this “Red Hood and the Outlaws” cover) are a few of DC’s heroines. (DC Comics)

Chase doesn’t apologize for unrealistically sexy portrayals of DC’s heroines, but she emphasizes context.

“You’re doing idealized, muscled characters, so obviously they don’t look realistic, and they’re in costume,” Chase said, noting that the real measure of progress is in the personalities of such characters as Wonder Woman, Batgirl and Catwoman. “They’re not cheesecakey women books. They’re strong female characters.”

Chase points out that 25% of the editorial staff is women. Numbers for the creative staff were not available, but she said that more women are joining the New 52 roster in the coming months.

(DC Comics)

One of those women is Ann Nocenti, a veteran comics writer recently recruited to take over “Catwoman.”

“I think they reached out to me partly for that reason … as an effort to bring female perspective into comics,” Nocenti said.

But toning down Catwoman’s sexuality is not part of her plan, she said.

“She puts on a skintight leather black cat suit with one zipper,” Nocenti said. “Do you know anyone who dresses like that? If you did, you would assume that they were loving their sexuality. … I think there should always be intentionality to the sex in a character.”

It’s a sentiment shared by Becky Cloonan, a young comics creator who has distinguished herself with an edgy artistic style.

“I think about character a lot,” said Cloonan. “I’ll sit down and sketch for pages and pages until I get just the right face and body type…. All women have different bodies, and it’s really fun to try to match that with a character.”

Her work — for Marvel, Vertigo, Tokyopop and Dark Horse as well as self-published titles — falls on both sides of the divide between indie and superhero comics. Cloonan stresses the importance of growing a diverse readership to make earning a living in comics feasible for more people.

She also celebrates how far women have come. When she began reading comics as a child, she said she could count on her fingers the number of female-created titles on comic shop shelves.

“You can definitely see a change in the people creating, and that’s going to show a change in the readership,” she said. “I think more girls should be involved in doing superheroes, but I think there’s going to be a tipping point…. It might take them five or 10 years to break in to the industry, but I think you’re going to see a real shift in the next few years.”

Sarah Oleksyk, author of the graphic novel “Ivy,” works on a comic in her Burbank apartment. (Allen J. Schaben / Los Angeles Times)

One thing that the superhero creators and indie creators can agree on is that they’re tired of talking about “women in comics.”

“It’s a running joke at this point, I think,” Brosgol said. “There’ve been so many panels at comic conventions and articles, and they’re becoming a little bit awkward because the people on the panels don’t have any horror stories to relate. They’re just sort of staring at whoever asked the question.”

And that in itself might be the best sign of progress.

“I can’t address it enough,” MacDonald said. “I think the time has come to stop saying, ‘Oh, my God, there are women in comics!’ and just be like, ‘Here’s some really cool stuff.’ And really just talk about the work and not the issue, because it’s just not an issue the way it used to be.”

– Noelene Clark


Astonishing X-Men #51 (Djurdjevic variant)


History of Cartoons

 What is cartoon

Example of a modern cartoon. The text was excerpted by cartoonist Greg Williams from the Wikipedia article Dr. Seuss

cartoon is a form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art. While the specific definition has changed over time, modern usage refers to a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic drawing or painting intended for satire, caricature, or humour, or to the artistic style of such works. An artist who creates cartoons is called a cartoonist.

The term originated in the Middle Ages and first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, fresco, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, it came to refer to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers, and in the early 20th century and onward it referred to comic strips and animated films.

Main article: Modello Fine art

A cartoon (from the Italian “cartone” and Dutch word “karton”, meaning strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate).

Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design; a bag of soot was then patted or “pounced” over the cartoon, held against the wall to leave black dots on the plaster (“pouncing”). Cartoons by painter, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London and examples by Leonardo Davinci, are highly prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons, usually coloured, were followed by eye by the weavers on the loom.

Print media

John Leech’s “Cartoon no.1: Substance and Shadow” (1843) satirized preparatory cartoons for frescoes in the Palace of Westminster, creating the modern meaning of “cartoon”.

In modern print media, a cartoon is a piece of art, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843 when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages, particularly sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminister. The original title for these drawings was Mr Punch’s face is the letter Q and the new title “cartoon” was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians.

Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines, generally consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath or (much less often) a speech balloon. Newspaper syndicates have also distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others. Many consider  New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon (as did Arno himself). The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Adda, Charles Barsotti and Chon Day.

Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus and Virgil Partch began as a magazine gag cartoonists and moved on to do syndicated comic strips. Noteworthy in the area of newspaper cartoon illustration is Richard Thompson, who illustrated numerous feature articles in  The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip. Sports sections of newspapers usually featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester “Chet” Brown’s All in Sport.

Editorial cartoons are found almost exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they also employ humor, they are more serious in tone, commonly using irony or satire. The art usually acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social and/or political topics. Editorial cartoons often include speech balloons and, sometimes, multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff Mcnelly, Mike Peters and Gerald Scarfe.

Comic strips, also known as “cartoon strips” in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, and are usually a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence. In the  United States they are not as commonly called “cartoons” themselves, but rather “comics” or “funnies”. Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are usually referred to as “cartoonists”. Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter, adventure and drama are also represented in this medium. Noteworthy cartoonists of humor strips include Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E.C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Waterson.


Books with cartoons are usually reprints of newspaper cartoons. On some occasions, new gag cartoons have been created for book publication, as was the case with Think Small, a 1967 promotional book distributed as a giveaway by Volkswagen  dealers. Bill Hoestand other cartoonists of that decade drew cartoons showing Volkswagens, and these were published along with humorous automotive essays by such humorists as H. Allen Smith, Roger Price and Jean Shepherd. The book’s design juxtaposed each cartoon alongside a photograph of the cartoon’s creator.


An animated cartoons horse, drawn by rotoscoping from  Eadweard Muybridge’s 19th-century photos.

Main article: Animated Cartoon.

Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, “cartoon” came to refer to animation, and the word “cartoon” is currently used to refer to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons. While “animation” designates any style of illustrated images seen in rapid succession to give the impression of movement, the word “cartoon” is most often used in reference to TV programs and short films for children featuring anthropomorphized animals, superheroes, the adventures of child protagonists and related genres.

At the end of the 1980s, the word “cartoon” was shortened, and the word “toon” came into usage with the live action/animated feature Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988), followed two years later by the TV series Tiny Toon Adventures (1990).

hikaye yazilirken dikkat edilmesi gereken seyler

Hikayeler: Öykülerden biraz farklı olarak birkaç bölüm halinde yazılabilirler. Hikayenin kahramanları öykülere nazaran daha fazla olabilir. Birkaç olay iç içe geçebilir. Ancak yine de romanlar kadar karmaşık değildir.

Hikaye yazarken dikkat edilmesi gerekenler:

Hikayeler, kısa olmak zorunda olduğu için konuyu anlatış tarzı çok önemlidir. Hikayenin anlatıcısı, birinci tekil kişi yada üçüncü tekil kişi olabilir. Her iki yönteminde bazı avantaj ve dezavantajları mevcuttur.

Birinci tekil kişinin ağzından anlatılan hikayeler duyguların okuyucuya yansıtılması açısından avantajlıysa da; olayları tek kişinin bakış açısından anlatacağından kimi zaman elverişsiz olacaktır.

Bununla birlikte üçüncü tekil kişinin ağzından anlatılan hikayeler de olayın bütününün okuyucuya yansıtılması; okuyanı hikayede anlatılmakta olan olayın içinde çekmesi açısından daha avantajlıdır. Üçüncü tekil kişi olayı gördüğü gibi anlatır.

En uygun olanı hikayedeki olayların mı; yoksa duyguların mı ön planda olduğuna göre bir seçim yapılması olacaktır.

Hikaye yazarken dikkat edilmesi gereken bir diğer husus ise, hikayede geçen olayların okuyucunun gözünde canlandırılabilmesidir. Okuyucu hikayeyi okurken, kendini film seyreder gibi hissedebilmelidir. Bu özellikle görselliğin ön plana çıktığı günümüzde daha da büyük öneme sahiptir. Olayı gözünde canlandırabilen okur, hikayeyi okumaktan zevk alır ve sıkılmaz.

Hikayenin dili de oldukça önemlidir. Okuyucuyu sıkmamak için uzun cümlelerden kaçınılmalı, olayları anlatırken birkaç kelimeyle okuyucunun olayı kafasında canlandırabilmesi sağlanmalı; uzun tasvirler yerine aynı etki, vurucu birkaç kelime ile sağlanmalıdır. Sıfat yerine kullanılacak imgeler bunu kolaylaştıracaktır.

Hikaye kahramanlarını konuştururken, çok fazla ‘öyle dedi’, ‘böyle dedi’ demekten kaçınmak gerekir. Bu akıcılığı bozacaktır. Bunun yerine konuşmaların, tırnak işaretleri yardımıyla ayrılması konuşmaları daha akıcı hale getirecektir.

Özetle, yazar olayı anlatmaktansa; göstermeyi tercih etmelidir!



Bu bulmus oldugum cizim ve yazi Dr. Seuss’a ait. Dr. Seuss ta en sevdigim cizgi romanlardan biri hem cizgisine hem de icerigi benim icin cok verimli bir kaynak. Okudugum zaman icimi hem nese dolduruyor hem de huzun yazdigi seyler de cizgileri de hem cok olgun ve gelismis hem de cok icten ve cocuksu…


Charlie Brown karaketeri de benim en sevdigim karakterlerden bir tanesi hem cok komik hem de cok seker cizilmis bir cizgi kahraman oldugunu dusunuyorum ve o sevimli ve sicak espiri anlayisi beni cok etkiliyor…

Marry and Max, son zamanlarda izledigim en iyi stop motion filmlerinden biri, 8 yasindaki marryle 44 yasindaki max in absurd gibi gozukup bir sure sonra insani icine alan ask hikayesi benim hikayemde yaratmaya calistigim karinca ve cocuk karakterindeki baglilik ve sevgiye dayali olan ask hikayesine cok yakin oldugundan bu filmden de etkilendigimi soyleyebilirim…. Ayni zamanda Marry and Max filmindeki espiriler de benim bir sekilde esin kaynagim oldu… Ve filmin cekimlerinden de cok etkilendigimi soylemeden edemiyicegim…